Computer script analysis
In recent years – both in Poland and abroad – research has been intensified on the possibility of adopting computer analysis methods for script expertise.
In general, two types of computer programs used in scripture expertise can be distinguished.
The first group includes programs to help the expert in analysing and documenting the selected features of the script. These include both – specialist programs for scripture expertise (GRAPHLOG, SCANGRAF) and commercially available computer programs (WORD, Adobe Photoshop, Corel), which, in addition to other applications, can also be used for document research and graphic presentation of the results.
The other group includes programs used in the process of identifying the manuscript maker (eg Polish programs GRAFOTYP, RAYGRAF, KINEGRAF).
Some of them – in the minds of their creators – are intended to replace experts in the process of identifying the manuscript maker.
These are programs that use the signature as a biometric feature (e.g. a system developed by B. Zhang and N. Srihari) or the German SIGNATURIX system launched on the Polish market.
This is a solution allowing placement of a handwritten signature on a document that can be printed or stored in a computer archive. The signature is submitted on a touch screen device that also records a number of parameters (drawing/submitting time, line pressure, line length and line shape) used in the authentication analysis (that is, it allows to gather more data than when submitting a signature on paper). This way the signed document is secured and can be forwarded to another person. A document saved in PDF format is protected against content changes, and most of all, against the replacement of the signatures. The system provides the ability to file a signature regardless of the submitter’s location.
In Poland, the first computer-aided system for examining handwriting features was developed at the Institute of Forensic Research in Cracow, in cooperation with CYBID Sp.j. (formerly CYBORG IDEA s.c.), as part of a research project funded by the Ministry of Science and Computerisation (Research Project No. 2 HO2A 024 24). This is a program which allows creation of precise measurements and statistical analysis of measurable features of the script.
The widest offer of the computer techniques adaptation to the needs of handwriting and scripture expertise is a scientific undertaking/project of the University of Warsaw and Polish Forensic Association . A joint research and development project has elaborated a set of script analysing computer programs GLOBALGRAF [development project No. OR 00003807 entitled “Developing methodologies and programs and building a stand for letters and signatures identification using computer graphometrics” (completed in 2011)].